Sugary Drinks Research: Introduction & Methods


hand holding soda can pouring a crazy amount of sugar in metaphor of sugar content of a refresh drink

This is part of our Sugary Drinks & Latino Kids: A Research Review » Introduction Americans obtain over 40 percent of their total sugar in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), including soda, sports and energy drinks, and fruit drinks that contain less than 100 percent juice. Young Americans—including young Latinos—drink far more of these beverages than they did a few decades ago.1 Further, as young Americans’ consumption of soda, fruit drinks, and other SSBs has increased, their consumption of white, unsweetened milk has decreased at the same time.2 Cross sectional studies have shown that children’s milk intakes are inversely associated with intakes of SSBs, including juice drinks and soda, as early as 2 years of age.3,4 This trend is particularly ...

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Sugary Drinks & Latino Kids: A Research Review



Abstract Did you know three of four Latino kids have had a sugary drink by age 2? Latino kids at all ages consume more sugary drinks—soda, sports and energy drinks, sugary fruit juices, and flavored milk—than the average child. This extra consumption puts them at greater risk of unhealthy weight. Several strategies are emerging to limit kids' sugary drink consumption. These include: policies on the availability and promotion of sugary drinks and water in school and early child care settings; regulatory and voluntary measures to limit marketing of sugary drinks to children; and pricing initiatives to raise the price of sugary drinks. Increasing access to water also is a critical way to develop healthier, hydrated children. Read the Issue Brief in English (PDF) Read the ...

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Latina Mom and Baby Health Research: Maternal Obesity



This is part of our Latina Mom and Baby Health: A Research Review » Maternal obesity a factor Studies have shown that maternal obesity and lower social class are both associated with a tendency to formula feed and a greater risk of obesity in children.4 In fact, parental obesity is considered a strong predictor of obesity in offspring, which can be due to both environmental and genetic components.5,6 Results from the Viva La Familia Study in 2009 outlined genetic and environmental risk factors linked to childhood obesity in 1,030 Latino children from Houston.7 Findings confirmed that maternal obesity was indeed an independent risk factor for childhood obesity within this population; Latina mothers ≥30 kg/m2 gave birth to children that were 1.8 times more likely to be ...

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Latina Mom and Baby Health Research: Breastfeeding



This is part of our Latina Mom and Baby Health: A Research Review » Benefits of breastfeeding The benefits of breastfeeding for both mother and baby are well established in the literature, and yet breastfeeding rates in the United States remain below desired levels.38,39 According to recommendations from The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), mothers should exclusively breastfeed their infants for at least the first 6 months of life, with continuation for 1 year or longer. In addition, breastfeeding infants should not receive supplemental formula unless advised by a health care professional.39,40 As part of the Healthy People 2020 initiative, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services outlined several ...

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Latina Mom and Baby Health Research: Introduction and Methods



This is part of our Latina Mom and Baby Health: A Research Review » Introduction In the United States, obesity continues to be a nationwide problem, where Latino children and adolescents are particularly at risk. According to a recent estimate, nearly 40 percent of U.S. Latino youths ages 2-19 are overweight or obese, compared with only 28.5 percent of non-Latino white youths.1 Furthermore, the percentage of those who are overweight or obese between ages 2-5 is nearly 30 percent for Latino children compared with only 21 percent of non-Latino white children.1 The high prevalence of obesity among Latino children and adolescents is of great concern due to the numerous adverse physical and mental health issues related to obesity, such as cardiovascular disease, asthma, type 2 diabetes, ...

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Latina Mom and Baby Health Research: Breastfeeding Promotion



This is part of our Latina Mom and Baby Health: A Research Review » Limited time available for breastfeeding Short periods of maternity leave remain a major barrier to breastfeeding, as a woman’s employment plans commonly impact her plan to breastfeed.72–77 Women who return to work before 6 weeks are over 3 times as likely to stop breastfeeding than those who return to work later than 6 weeks postpartum.78,79 In addition, the timing of breastfeeding discontinuation is closely linked with the return to work in low-income mothers.72 A mother is more than twice as likely to quit breastfeeding during the month she returns to work compared with a mother who remains on leave.72 A longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding correlates with a longer period of maternity leave.72–77 ...

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Latina Mom and Baby Health Research: Marketing of Infant Formula


Latino health breastfeeding equity sustainability

This is part of our Latina Mom and Baby Health: A Research Review » Exposure to formula marketing can impact breastfeeding Given the benefits of breastfeeding on reducing childhood obesity in the Latino population, it follows that factors discouraging mothers from breastfeeding may be detrimental to childhood obesity rates in Latino youths. Exposure to formula marketing can have a negative affect on a woman’s decision to initiate and/or continue breastfeeding.116–118 Mothers enrolled in WIC may be at particularly high risk, as WIC is the largest consumer of infant formula in the U.S. and provides free formula to low-income mothers.119 In addition, many states allow formula manufacturer’s to use statements such as “WIC approved” or “WIC eligible,” which may falsely ...

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Latina Mom and Baby Health Research: Infant Habits



This is part of our Latina Mom and Baby Health: A Research Review » The importance of healthy habits for babies As we have discussed, a mother’s physical activity level during pregnancy and early infant breastfeeding practices both play an important role in limiting the risk of childhood obesity among Latino youths. Within the first year of life, infants experiencing rapid weight gain are more likely to become overweight in later years.156–159 As such, it is critical that parents continue to promote healthy eating habits and physical activity for their children during infancy and early childhood in order to encourage a healthy weight for life. This is particularly important for Latino families, as there is a higher rate of obesity among Latino preschoolers in the United ...

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Latina Mom and Baby Health Research: Early Childcare



This is part of our Latina Mom and Baby Health: A Research Review » Children spend many hours in early childcare settings Most young children spend a significant amount of time in day care, preschool, pre-kindergarten (pre-K), and Head Start programs.164 An estimated 60 percent of children younger than 6 are placed in some form of non-parental care during the work week, averaging.164 nearly 30 hours per week. This presents an opportunity for childcare centers and providers to encourage healthy behaviors in young children and to better educate parents on how to continue healthy behaviors at home.164 Early childcare settings can promote healthy behaviors Evidence from the literature supports the notion that childcare is an important resource for promoting healthy behavior among ...

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Latina Mom and Baby Health Research: Future Research


latina mom with baby food bottle

This is part of our Latina Mom and Baby Health: A Research Review » Future research needs Childhood obesity continues to be an ongoing epidemic in the U.S., especially among Latino youths. While many of the potential policies and interventions discussed in this review have been investigated in the literature in low-income or WIC-enrolled populations, many have not been thoroughly investigated directly in Latino populations. In order to further support the policy implications described herein, it will be important for investigators to provide further clinical evidence that these approaches are capable of affecting positive changes in childhood obesity endpoints in Latino infants and preschool-aged children. Future studies are particularly needed in the areas of paid parental ...

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